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NEGLECTED GENIUS OF THE EAST
ALLA HAZRAT IMAM AHMAD RIZA KHAN BAREILVI
An Introduction to the life and the works
(1272/1856 ------1340/I921)

By: Professor MUHAMMAD MAS‘UD AHMAD
M.A; Ph.D.

PARENTAGE
Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan was born at Bareilly (India) in 1272/1856. His father Mawlana Naqi Ali Khan (d. 1297/1880) and grandfather Mawlana Rida Ali Khan (d. 1282/1866) were celebrated theologians recognized as such by academic circles of the entire subcontinent.1

EDUCATIONAL CAREER
Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan completed his educational career under his fathers as well under famous scholars like:

1. Shaykh Ahmad Bin Zayn Dahlan Makki (d. 1299/1881)

2. Shah Al-i-Rasul (d. 1297/1879).

3. Shaykh and ‘Abd al-Rahman Makki (d. 1301/1883).

4. Shaykh Husayn bin Saleh. (d. 1302/1884).

5. Shah Abu al-Hasan Ahmad (d. 1324/1906)

Scholarship
Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan was astonishingly well versed in more than fifty branches of learning pertaining to Ancient Sciences 4, Modern Sciences, 5 Current Sciences and Oriental Learnings and left contributions in all these academic disciplines. His caliph Mawlana Muhammad Zafar al-Din (d. 1382/1962) had compiled his chronological bibliography al-Mudjmal al-Mu‘ddid in 1327-1909 i.e. 12 years before the death of Ahmad Rida Khan. In this bibliography he has mentioned about 350 books and treatises on more than fifty branches of knowledge. His knowledge was indeed encyclopaedic.7

Sufism
In 1294/1827 he went with his father to visit Shah Al-i-Rasul (d. 1297/1879). He was admitted to the Qadiriyya Order and was permitted to enroll and train neophytes. He had similar authority in thirteen other orders.8

Pilgrimage
In 1295/1878 he went with his father for the first pilgrimage and got diplomas from famous Arab scholars at Mecca.9. In 1323/1905 he proceeded for his second pilgrimage. During his stay at Mecca and Madina he won the respect of noted scholars who visited him and received from him diplomas and Fatawa.10

Master Jurist
On 14th Sha‘ban 1286/1869 he started issuing Fatawa and gave verdicts on Muslim jurisprodence.11. At that time he was only a boy of less than 14 years old.12. Afterwards he attained such eminence in this field that the scholars of the Indo-Pak subcontinent and also of the Islamic World acknowledged him as a great jurist.13. He had full command over Muslim Jurisprudence so much so that he differed in certain verdicts with the great Islamic savants like Allama Shami, Allama Tahtawi and Shah Wali Allah etc.14. He had great insight in Fiqh. The following Savants, Scholars, Philosophers and Journalists highly praised his scholarship and command over Muslim Jurisprudence.

The poet of the East Dr. Muhammad lqbal remarked: -

“Such a genius and intelligent jurist did not emerge.”15

The Great Mufti of India Shah Muhammad Mazhar Allah, Commanding Ahmad Rida Khan writes: -

“I do think Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan was the genius and a great scholar of Ahl-i-Sunnat wa Djamat.” 16

The renowned Theologian-cum-politician figure of Pakistan Mawlana Abu al-Ala Mawdudi writes in his letter (dated 12 February 1974 addressed to the editor of The Monthly Tardjuman-i-Ahl-I-Sunnat, Karachi):

In my eyes the late Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan was the bearer of religious knowledge and insight and was a respectable leader of the majority of Muslims. 17

(4) Dr. Abd Allah (the Chairman, Department of Encyclopedia of Islam, University of the Punjab, Lahore) writes: -

A scholar is the mind and tongue of his nation. And a Muslim Scholar whose axis or thought is the Quran and the Prophetic Tradition; is the interpreter of science and learning; the proclaimer of truth and righteousness and the benefactor of humanity. It will be no exaggeration if I say that Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan was a scholar of the same kind.18

(5) Mr. Khurshid Ahmad while discussing the scholarship of Ahmad Rida Khan remarks:

“Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan is the founder of Bareilvi school of thought and one of the most important scholars of this era.

He had started writing in the last quarter of nineteenth century A.D. and this continued till his death in 1921. Apart from jurisprudence and Tafsir (commentry of Holy Quran) he was master in Philosophy and Mathematics. The standard of his writings is very high. Besides the translation of Holy Quran in idiomatic Urdu he had contributed several books in Arabic language on pure scholastic topics. He had also written books in refutation of Ahl-i-Hadith and Ulama-i-Deoband.19

(6) The editor of the monthly Maarif (a leading journal of India) observes: -

The late Mawalana Ahmad Rida Khan R.A. was a great scholar, writer and a jurist of his time. He wrote treatises pertaining to hundreds and thousands of minor and major problems concerning jurisprudence.20

The editor of “Les Nouvellous” (Prort Louis/Mauritius) writes: Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan (R.A.) is a renowned writer of Islam. Among his literary works of about 700 books, he wrote the famous Fattawa-i-Ridawiyya in twelve volumes, each consisting of about 850 pages. He had a profound knowledge of science too, for he was a Master of Mathematics and Astronomy. He dedicated his whole life to the religion of Allah and acted as a shield against those who wanted to assault the principles of the Ahl-i-snnnat wa Jamaat, for he was truly a great defender of the Faith. On his visit to Mecca and Madina, he was greeted with great dignity and was conferred upon the title of “Imam-i-Ahl-i-Sunnat” by eminent theologians. They hailed him as a “Reformer of this Century”, and adopted him as their Spiritual Guide. 21

(7) A well-known author and critic of Indo-Pak Sub-continent Mr. Niyaz Fath Puri expressed his impressions regarding Ahmad Rida Khan as under:-

“I had the good opportunity to meet Ahmad Rida Khan, who was an exceptionally gifted person. His study was both varied and intensive and reflected itself in his demeanour. In spite of humility and good-naturedness, he had a strange air of awe over his face”

(Quoted in “Tarjuman-i-Ahl-i-Sunnat”, Karachi, December, 1975 : p. 27).

Lean and thin yet he possessed a gigantic personality. He left a profound issuance over his epoch. None among his contemporaries was as powerful as to influence the majority of Muslim population of Indo-Pak Sub-continent all alone from East to West and from North to South.

Dr. S.M. Ikram, a renowned Pakistani scholar spotlights this influence as under:

…but it is popular among the masses, and in West Pakistan especially in South West Parts of Punjab its hold is strong. 22

RELIGIOUS SERVICES

The religious turn of mind of Ahmad Rida Khan was in creed and law unalterably determined by the old traditional views.

Though he was well versed in scores of branches of knowledge yet in the later years he restricted his interest in the following branches of religious learnings:

i. To support and defend the Holy Prophet (S. A. w)

ii. To uproot the innovations prevalent in Muslim society.

iii. To issue Fatawa according to the Hanaifi school of jurisprudence 23

He hit the targets in these fields with unshakable confidence and accuracy that none among his contemporary scholars could claim to be his equal. This is not an exaggeration. His voluminous works, a hidden treasure to be explored by the orientalists of the world, will bear the testimony to this fact. He reviewed and revolutionized the Muslim Society, especially the Muslims of Indo-Pak Sub-continent, that is why the Arab scholars like Shaykh Ismail bin Khalil and Shaykh Musa Ali Shami commended him as the Revivalist of the 14th Century A.H.

If he is called the Revivalist of this Century it will be right and true. 24

The Muslim Savants and saints all over the world appreciated his services to Islam and bore testimony to his extraordinary scholarship. 25

In 1322/1904 he founded Dar-al-Ulum Manzar-i-lslam at Bareilly (U.P. India), which played an important role, but the fame and prestige of Ahmad Rida Khan was not indebted to this Dar al-Ulum like others. Scores of Dar-al-Ulum in India and especially in Pakistan are under his influence.

Ahmad Rida Khan infused the zeal of preaching and missionary work to his Caliphs, desciples, and pupils. Some of them rendered great services to Islam which must be recorded in the history, 26 His renowned Caliph Mawlana Muhammad Abd al-Alim Siddiqi (d.1374/1954) toured all over the world, propagated Islam and made hundreds and thousands non-Muslims embraced Islam. He met the world-renowned Irish dramatist and philosopher George Bernard Shaw on 17th of April 1935, during his Visit to Mombassa and discussed the religious problems with him. After the discussion when they parted Shaw expressed his feelings as under: -

“have been very pleased to make acquaintance and it will be the most precious of all memories of this trip of mine ”. 27

Abd al-Alim son Mawlana Shah Ahmad Nurani 28 and son-in-law Dr. Fadl al-Rahman Ansari (d. 1394/1974) also rendered great services to Islam. The latter compiled a unique book in English with the title: -

“The Quranic Foundations and Structure of Muslim Society”. (Karachi, 1973).30

POLITICAL SERVICES

Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan, as stated earlier, was the grandson of Mawlana Rida Ali Khan (d. 1282/1866), the great theologian and warrior who fought with General Bakht khan against English invaders in 1250/1834. General Hudson announced a reward of Rs. 500.00 for the one who could behead him. An English historian writes that Rida Ali Khan did his best against English domination and supported the freedom fighters with horses and weapons. 31

Being the grandson of such a warrior he could not remain aloof from Freedom Movement. Although he did not take any active part yet he paved the way for freedom with his brilliant philosophy based on the Holy Quran and Hadith. It is his love of freedom that the personalities like Mawlana Fadl-I-Haq (d. 1278/1861) 32 and the Martyr peot Mawlana Kifayat Ali Kafi (d.1275/1858) 33 had been his favourite models.

He was against Hindu-Muslim Unity. This was the basic idea which can rightly be called the foundation of Pakistan.

In 1920, when the Islamic College, Lahore, was entangled in a non-co-operation movement, with the suggestion of Dr. Muhammad Iqbal (the Poet of the East) and the Members of Anjuman-i-Himayat al-lslam, Prof. Hakim Ali the Vice Principal of Islamia College, presented an Istifta before Ahmad Rida Khan. He was seriously ill at that critical juncture but he gave his verdict un-dauntedly which was published as a treatise with the title of: -

“AL-MUHADJDJA- AL-MU’TAMINA 34.”

This treatise can be called a precious and valuable document for freedom fighters. It paved the way and changed the ideas of the great politicians like Dr. Muhammad Iqbal and Qa‘id-i-Azam M.A. Jinnah.His caliphs, desciples and pupils took active part in freedom movement. They had discussion with Abu al-Kalam Azad and Ali Brothers (i.e. Mawlana Muhammad Ali and Mawlana Shaukat Ali).On 13th Radjab 1339/1920 a public meeting was held at Bareilly under the auspices of Djam‘yyat-t-Ulama-i-Hind. Maulana Abu Al-Kalam Azad the first Minister of Education of Bharat (India), was on the stage. Ahmad Rida Khan’s Caliphs Mawlana Sayyid Sulayman Ashraf, Mawlana Muhammad Zafar Al-Din, Mawlana Hamid Rida Khan (the elder son of Ahmad Rida Khan) Mawlana Burhan al-Haq, etc., were also invited. They had open and free discussions on political issues publicly with Mawlana Abu al-Kalam Azad and refuted Hindu-Muslim Unity. 35

In 1946/1366 an ideal conference was held at Benares (India) Hundreds and thousands Ulamas (followers of Ahmad Rida Khan) from all over Indo-Pak Sub-continent attended this conference. A resolution was unanimously passed in favour of Pakistan and thenceforward his caliphs and desciple and followers expanded and enhanced their political activities all over Indo-Pak Sub-continent. 36 Among them the following were prominent: -1. Mawlana Sayyid Muhammad Muhaddith (d. 1383/1963).

2. Mawlana Muhammad Naim al-Din (d. 1367/1948). 36

3. Mawlana Sayyid Muhammad Ahmad (d. 1380/1961).

4. Mufti Muhammad Umar (d. 1385/1966).

5. Mawlana Muhammad Abd al-Alim (d. 1374/1954). 37

6. Mawlana Muhammad Sharif (d. 1371/1951).

7. Mawlana Abd al-Hamid Badyuni (d. 1390/1970).Ahmad Rida Khan had strong hold on Muslim masses and it was masses that made the movement of Pakistan a success. The majority of the Muslim voters was under the influence of him, his caliphs, desciples and pupils. So the credit should go to him and his followers. Historians of the world especially of Indo-Pak Sub-continent should draw their attention to this most significant aspect of freedom movement. 38

The love of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) is the summum bonum of Islamic politics and has played important role in the history of Muslim World. Ahmad Rida Khan was the Torch Bearer of this love in the Indo-Pak Sub-continent. The only Motto of his life was the “ love of the Holy Prophet ” (S.A.W.) and he could leave no stone unturned in defending this love. Throughout his life and in all his works he maintained this Motto and in this respect he could not compromise with any.His poetry totally depended on this love. Hence it has great religio-political importance. He awakened the Muslim Nation from a sound sleep, purified their hearts and kindled the fire of love in an atmosphere where the people tried their best to extinguish it.

LITERARY SERVICES

Ahmad Rida Khan was a poet of high caliber. He adopted Na‘at 39 the most difficult of all the branches of poetry, but all the same he reached at the highest pinnacles. He was an unrivalled lover of the Holy Prophet (S.A.S.), a great scholar and a great saint. These mental and spiritual qualities elevated his poetry and made it highly ecstatic, lucid and profusely rich with rhetorics. 40 It is regretted that the Urdu literature has been the target of sectarianism that is why he was deliberately neglected in Urdu literature by the latter historians and biographers. And even today the scholars hesitate to appreciate his poetry with open heart due to sectarian bias.For the first time, after half a century, Mawlana Kauthar Niyazi the Minister of Religious Affairs, Government of Pakistan, and himself a brilliant poet, publicly paid homage to Ahmad Raza Khan which is most daring and highly appreciable. In a gathering at Karachi on 13 April, 1975/1395 he expressed his feelings in his presidential address as under: - There born a person in Bareilly who was the imam (Guide) of Na‘at writers and whose name is Ahmad Raza Khan Bareilvi. It is possible that some might differ from him on some points or the difference may be on some dogmas, but there is no doubt that his Na‘ats are completely full with the love of Holy Prophet (S.A.S.). 41How astonishing it is that from 1920 to 1970 A.D. he remained in darkness as a poet in literary circles. But since 1970 the sincere efforts of some workers like Hakim Muhammad Musa (Lahore) etc, have turned the tables. And it is mainly due to his efforts that scholars of Pakistan have made the facts come to light. A few facts about the poetry of Ahmad Rida Khan are presented here, from which one can easily judge his rank among the poets of an Urdu.Mirza Dagh of Delhi (d. 1323/1905) was the teacher of Hasan Rida Khan, the younger brother of Ahmad Rida Khan. One day he enjoyed a verse of Ahmad Rida Khan by the lips of his younger brother. Being intoxicated he remarked: -“Lo, a Mawlavi 42 and such a fine verse!” 43The Qasida-i-Na‘tiyya (encomium in Praise of the Ho1y Prophet S.A.S.) of Mohsin Kakorvi (d. 1323/1905) is considered to be the best in Urdu literature. But When Mohsin himself called on Ahmwd Rida Khan to recite this Qasida before him and listened his Qasida M‘radjiyya (encomium in praise of the Holy Prophet's Ascension), 44 Mohsin had been so impressed that he folded his own Qasida and put it in his pocket. 45 Commenting on this Qasida-i-M‘radjiyya the eminent poets of Lucknow expressed their view unanimously: -“ Its language has been washed in Kauthar ” (name of a river in Paradise). 46The well-known commentator of Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, the Poet of the East, Professor Yusuf Salim Chishti commending the SALAM 47 of Ahmad Raza Khan says: -There is hardly any person who does not remember two or four lines of his SALAM by heart. 48The most eminent scholar of Pakistan Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Khan, (Head of the Department of Urdu, University of Sindh, Hyderabad, Pakistan) discussing the poetry of Ahmad Raza Khan explained his view about one of his Qasidas as unparalleled in the history of Urdu literature ”. He gave an extension lecture at the University of Karachi on:“Urdu Shaie Aur Tasawwuf ”In this lecture he highly praised the poetry of Ahmad Rida Khan especially a poem from his Diwan “Hadaq-I-Bakhshish” (1325/1907).49 He expressed:-It will be advisable to refer to a Devotee of the Holy Prophet (S.A.S.) viz. Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan (d. 1340/1921) from whom our writers continued to turn a deaf ear but perhaps he was the only Muslim Theologian who used countless Urdu idioms in his prose and poetry and made Urdu poetry sublime by this scholarship----------and for whom the love of the Holy Prophet (S.A.S.) was the main stay of Sufism. (Photostate, p. 9).Dr. Farman Fathpuri a leading writer of Pakistan writes in his book “Urdu Ki Na‘tiyya Shari” (Lahore: 1394/1974, P. 86): -“The name of Ahmad Rida Khan Bareilvi is most prominent among Muslim Theologians as Na‘at writer.” Niyaz Fathpuri a renowned poet and critic of both India and Pakistan ‘comments on the poetic art or Mawlana Ahmad Rida Khan as: -“Poetry and literature are my domains in particular. I have gone through nation poetry of Ahmad Raza Khan with interest and attention. The first impression which one gathers from his poetry is that of his devout love for the Holy Prophet of Islam and secondly one is struck by his vastness of knowledge, sub-limity of thought and excellence of expression. His individuality is also rejected but simply as a foil to his love for the prophet in his Na‘ats. This note of individuality sounds like poetic exaggeration to those who are unaware of his poetic art.In fact his Ideas are full of realism--------Mawlana Hasrat Mohani(a poet and freedom-fighter) was also highly appreciative of Ahmad Rida Rhan . . . Ahmad Rida Khan was also well-versed in Arabic idiom and the art of scansion. ”(Quoted in “Tardjuman-i-Ahl-i-Sunnat, Karachi, December, 1975: p.28.)Recently Shafiq Bareilvi has published a beautiful collection of selected Na‘at with the title of “Armughan-i-Na‘at (Karachi, 1975). In this collection he has included the Na‘at of Ahmad Rida Khan. 50

Demise

Ahmad Rida Khan gave verdicts (Fatwas) for more than half a century (from 1286/1896------1339/1921) fortified the faith of Muslim masses and showed right path to the Muslim Politicians at that critical juncture of 1920. Thus he completed his mission and now he was preparing for his last journey. On Friday 25th Safar l340/ 1921, he left this mundane world for heaven. 51 His mausoleum is situated at Bareilly (U.P., India). His death anniversary is commemorated all over Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent on 24th and 25th Safar, and special issues of newspapers and periodicals


Holy Shrine of Aala Hazrat Ahmend Rada Khan Barailvi

Descendants

Ahmad Rida Khan had two sons and five daughters. His son’s Mawlana Hamid Rida Khan (d. 1362/1934) and Mawlana Mustafa Raza Khan (b. 1310/1892) are celebrated savants of Islam. They rendered great services to Islam and the Muslim Nation In India.

Caliphs

Ahmad Raza Khan's Caliphs are spreading far and wide all over India and Pakistan and also in the Islamic World. Nearly 35 in Islamic World and 30 in Indo-Pak Sub-continent. 53 These are the leading ones: -

Muslim World

Ø Shaykh Multammad Abd al-Hayy.

Ø Shaykh Ahmad Khalil.

Ø Shaykh Ahmad Khudravi.

Ø Shaykh Muhammad Bin Abi Bakr.

Ø Shaykh Muhammad Sa‘id, etc. etc.

India and Pakistan

Ø Mawlana Hamid Rida Khan (d. 1362/1943).

Ø Mawlana Muhammad Zafar al-Din (d. 1382/1962).

Ø Mawlana Didar Ali (d. 1354/1935).

Ø Mawlana Amdjad Ali 54 (d. 1367/1948).

Ø Mawlana Muhammad Na‘im al-Din 55 (d. 1367/1948).

Ø Mawlana Shah Sulayman Ashraf (d. 1352/1933).

Ø Mawlana Sayyid Ahmad Ashraf (d. 1344/1925).

Ø Mawlana Muhammad Abd al-Alim Siddiqi 56. etc. etc.The following caliphs are still alive and are source of knowledge and spiritualism for posterity:

I. Mawlana Mustafa Rida Khan (Bareilly, lndia).

II. Mufti Diya al-Din (Madina, Saudi Arabia).

III. Mawlana Burhan al-Haq (Jabalpur, India).

IV. Mawlana Sayyid Ahmad (Lahore, Pakistan).

V. Abu al-Barakat.WorksAhmad Rida Khan was a genius writer. He started writing from his early age. His first book was the Arabic commentary of Hidaya al-Nahv which he wrote at the age of ten years. The second book was Dau al-Nihaya in Arabic, which he wrote in 1285/1868 at the age of thirteen. He wrote numerous books and treatises in Arabic, Persian, and Urdu on diversified topics. These are estimated more than 1000 on more than 50 branches of knowledge 57 In 1305/1887 at the age of 30 years he had completed 75 books and treatises. 58 In 1327/1909 this number increased up to 500. 59 Apart from these contributions he had written annotation 60 and Commentator on more than 150 books pertaining to various branches of learning. 61. But it is deplorable that even scholar like Dr. S. M. Ikram was unaware of the correct number of Ahmad Raza Khan writings, and their real value that is why he writes: -Mawlana Ahmad Raza Khan wrote some fifty pamphlets on controversial subject. 62 But in this special branch the correct number is more than 500. I have gone throught some pamphlets and I can dare to say that each pamphlet is a research paper of high degree whose bibliography consists of books innumerable. His books and treatises are lying un published at Bareilly., Murad Abad, Lahore, Karachi, etc., so far.

Mr. Shams al-Din a contributor to the voluminous history of literature of the Muslims of Indo-Pakistan confesses that Ahmad Raza Khan:

Wrote hundreds and thousands book on various controversial and scientific topics. 63

The most voluminous work is the collection of Verdicts i.e. Fatawa-i-Ridawiyya. In 1324/1904, he had completed its 7 volumes, which afterwards increased upto 12 volumes of 26” x 20” / 8” size each volume containing more than 1000 pages.

When Shaykh Ismail Khalil, the Curator of Library at Mecca read the specimen of these Fatawa (Verdicts) he was puffed up with joy and wrote to Ahmad Rida Khan:By God if Abu Hanifa Nu‘man would have gone through these Fatawa undoubtedly it could have been his heart's delight and granted its writer among his pupils. 64 A prominent figure from the opposition camp and a famous writer Hakim Abd al-Hayy of Lucknow (d. 1341/1923) admits: -During his stay at Mecca and Madina (1324/1906) he wrote several treatises and gave verdicts to some questions received from the scholars. They were dumb strikes to see his vast informations on the text of books on Muslim Jurisprudence and disputed dogmas; his rapid writing and intelligences. 65A renowned theologian and a great saint of Delhi, Hadrat Mawlana Zayd Abu l-Hassan Faruqi (who completed his education at Al-Azhar, Cairo) acknowledged the unrivalled mastery of Mawlana Ahmad Raza Khan over jurisprudence and other branches of learning in the following words: -“ None can deny the erudition of Mawlana Ahmad Raza Khan in the field of Fiqh. He was, no doubt the greatest Faqih (Jurist) of his time.”He added: -Kifayat al-Mufti of Mawlana Kifayat Allah (compiled and published by Mawalana Hafiz al-Rahman Wasif at Delhi) is simply of little value to me, as it provides no reference or citation. Hence its validity is questionable. On the contrary the Fatawa of Ahmad Raza are not only argumentatively convincing and rational but are supported by authentic references. They are unique in depth and magnitude and broaden ones horizons of vision. They are an assest to know and remember scores of references. One should not, however, look to that image of Ahmad Raza which the pseudo-scholars have envisaged. There was no equal to him in scholarship and the profound knowledge of jurisprudence among his contemporaries.
(Quoted from a despatch of Mawlana Muhammad Mukkarrum, Fathpuri Mosque Delhi, dated December 18, 1975).Even the antagonists of Ahmad Raza Khan referred to these Fatawa. For instance, the great Mufti of his opposite camp Mawlana Kifayat Allah (d. 1372/1952), consulted and ratiocinated these Fatawa and admitted that Mawlana Ahmad Raza Khan had full command over the subtleties of Muslim Jurisprudence as stated by Allama Mufti Muhammad Mahmud of Alwar (Hyderabad--- Pakistan).

The second important work which Ahmad Raza Khan contributed towards religious knowledge is the translation of the Holy Quran in Urdu language. It has its own characteristics.

This translation was published under the title of Kanz al-Iman with marginal notes by his Caliph Mawlana Muhammad Na‘im al-Din under the title Khaza’n al-Irfan in 1330/1911.

There are many complete and incomplete translations of the Holy Quran in Urdu language. More than 25 translations had been compiled before Kanz al-Iman while more than 50 have been compiled after its publication. But in all these translations, Kanz-al-Iman seems to stand first. The translator passed smoothly from such delicate places where it was impossible.


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